How a third generation of brands are taking advantage of the 'closed loop' engineering system

In engineering a “closed loop” is a system in which waste products are productively re-used. For a world that’s drowning in junk and waste products from making stuff, the promise of closed loops is simple: a more environmentally sustainable system of production. For brands, closed loops are a new way of thinking about not just their supply chains, but also their relationships with customers.

Since at least the 1960s some brands have questioned standard models of ownership, disposability and waste. In that time there have been at least three overlapping generations of brands.

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